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A batsman, batter, or striker is the player who is taking his turn at

A base-runner is what the batter becomes instantly after having hit a
fair ball, though for convenience of distinction he is often still
called a batter until he has reached first base.

A fielder is any one of the nine fielding players.

A coacher is one of the batting players who takes his position within
certain prescribed limits near first or third base to direct base-
runners and to urge them along.

A fair hit is, generally speaking, a ball hit by a batsman which falls
within the foul lines.

A foul hit is one which falls without the foul lines. A base hit is a
fair hit by a batsman which can neither be caught before touching the
ground nor fielded to first base in time to put out the striker. It may
be either a two-base hit, a three-base hit, or a home run, according as
two or three or four bases have been made on the hit without an
intervening error.

An error is made when a fielder fails to make a play that he should
fairly have been expected to make.

A fly is a hit caught before touching the ground.

A muff is made when a fly or thrown ball, striking fairly in the hands
of a fielder, is not caught.

A grounder is a hit along the ground.

A steal is made when a base-runner gets from one base to another without
the assistance of a base hit or an error.

A wild pitch is a ball thrown by the pitcher out of the fair reach of
the catcher, and on which a base-runner gains a base.

A passed ball is a throw by the pitcher which the catcher should stop
but fails, and by his failure a base-runner gains a base.

For the purpose of distinction, the nine fielders are subdivided into
The Battery, The In-field, and The Out-field. The Battery means the
Pitcher and Catcher, the In-field includes the First, Second, and Third
Basemen, and the Short-stop; and the Outfield is composed of the Left,
Centre, and Right Fielders.

As for the theory of the game, remember that there are opposing sides,
each of which has nine turns at the bat, i.e., nine innings, and the
object each inning is to score as many runs as possible. A run is scored
every time a player gets entirely around the bases, either by his own
hit alone or by the help of succeeding batters, or by the errors of the
opposing fielders, and the team making the most runs in nine innings is
declared the winner. An inning is ended when three of the batting side
have been put out, and a player may be put out in various ways, as
before enumerated. The umpire is not trying to be unfair, he is doing
the best he can, and instead of abuse he is often deserving of sympathy.

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