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The Presidents Of The National League

This is the twentieth year of the existence of the National League, and
in all that time but four members of the League have occupied the
presidential chair, viz., Morgan G. Bulkeley, ex-Governor of
Connecticut; the last W.A. Hulbert; A.G. Mills, the leading spirit of
the great New York Athletic Club, and N.E. Young, the present
highly-esteemed and worthy President of the League. Mr. Bulkeley served
during 1876; Mr. Hulbert from 1876 to his death in 1882; Mr. Mills from
that date up to 1884, when business requirements led to his resignation,
and Mr. Young since then. From the organization of the National League
in 1876 to the day of his death, Mr. Hulbert was the great moving
spirit in the reforms in the government of the professional clubs of the
country, which marked the period from 1876 to the eighties. It was his
influence, largely, which led to the war upon the "crookedness" which
marked the early years of professional base ball history, in which pool
gambling was the potent factor. It took years of cohesive and even
arbitrary legislation to eliminate the poison of the pool rooms from the
professional system, but success was finally achieved, and to the late
President Hulbert and his able coadjutors in the League does the credit
of this success belong. During the League regime, under President Mills,
the great union safety compact, known as the National Agreement, sprang
into existence, and its author--Mr. Mills--at this day has reason to be
proud of the good work he did for professional ball playing, and for the
benefit of the game at large, in the perfecting of this bond of union
between the reputable clubs of the professional fraternity. The wisdom
of the measure, as a protection against the abuses of "revolving" and
"contract breaking," has been very strikingly shown by court decisions
which oblige professional clubs to depend entirely upon base ball law,
and not the common law, for the preservation of their club rights in
contracting with players for their services on the field. Since
Mr. Mills left the League arena he has done most efficient service in
conserving the best interests of the New York Athletic Club and those of
the clubs of the Amateur Athletic Union at large.

The great master of League records, and the whilom Secretary of the
League since its organization, Mr. Young, is known throughout the entire
base ball world, alike for the integrity of his character, the geniality
of his disposition and the marked industry and persevering application
which has characterized the discharge of his onerous official duties.

It is well known that "Old Nick" is frequently alluded to in daily life
as the arch-fiend of the world; but the Old Nick of the base ball arena
presents a character the very opposite in every respect of his devilish
namesake--the one being the spirit of evil, and the other the spirit of
honor and good nature. Long may he live to honor the position and
uphold the reformation in the base ball world which his predecessors so
creditably originated and supported.

Mr. Young is a native of Amsterdam, N.Y. He was but a mere boy at the
outbreak of the war between the States, but he was game to the core and
among the first from his home country to enlist in the Union
service. Just before the war he appeared as an athletic young fellow
with muscles that would have done credit to one as large again as he
was. He was looked on as the best cricket player in the section of the
country in which he lived, playing frequently on elevens which had
besides himself George and Harry Wright as members. You should hear Nick
relate anecdotes of his career as a cricketer. At the close of the war
Mr. Young made Washington his residence, and securing a position in the
Second Auditor's Department, being an excellent accountant, he has
occupied his position through several administrations. From cricket he
became interested in the national game of base ball, and eventually, in
connection with Mr. A.G. Mills, he started the old Olympic club of
Washington, and then it was that he took the field again. In 1871 he
was elected Secretary of the old "National Association of Base Ball
Players"--not of clubs, but of players--and in 1884, he succeeded Mr.
Mills as President of the National League, which organization succeeded
the National Association, which had become rotten.

NOTE. For Specifications see Rules from No. 2 to No. 13.]

* * * * *


As adopted by the National League and American
Association of Professional Base
Ball Clubs.


RULE 1. The Ground must be an inclosed field, sufficient in size to
enable each player to play in his position as required by these Rules.

RULE 2. To lay off the lines governing the positions and play off the
Game known as Base Ball, proceed as follows:

From a point, A, within the grounds, project a right line out into the
field, and at a point, B, 154 feet from point A, lay off lines BC and BD
at right angles to the line AB; then with B as centre and 63.63945 feet
as radius, describe arcs cutting the lines BA at F and BC at G; BD at H
; and BE at I. Draw lines FG, GE, EH and HF, and said lines will be the
containing lines of the Diamond or Infield.


RULE 3. With F as centre and 90 feet radius, an arc cutting line FA at
L, and draw lines LM and LO at right angles to FA; and continue same out
from FA not less than 90 feet.


RULE 4. From the intersection point, F, continue the straight lines FG
and FH until they intersect with the lines LM and LI, and then from the
points G and H in the opposite direction until they reach the boundary
lines of the grounds.


RULE 5. With F as centre and 50 feet radius, describe arcs cutting lines
FO and EM at P and Q, then with F as centre again and 75 feet radius
describe arcs cutting FG and FH at R and S; then from the points P Q R
and S draw lines at right angles to the lines FO, FM, FG, and FH, and
continue same until they intersect at the points T W and W.


RULE 6. With R and S as centres and 15 feet radius, describe arcs
cutting lines RW and ST at X and Y, and from the points X and Y draw
lines parallel with lines FH and FG, and continue same out to the
boundary lines of the ground.


RULE 7. With F as centre and 45 feet radius, describe an arc cutting
line FG at 1, and from 1 out to the distance of 3 feet draw a line at
right angles to FG, and marked point 2; then from point 2, draw a line
parallel with the line FG to a point 3 feet beyond the point G, and
marked 3; then from the point 3 draw a line at right angles to line 2,
3, back to and intersecting with line FG, and from thence back along
line GF to point 1.


RULE 8. With point F as centre and 60.5 feet as radius, describe an arc
cutting the line FB at a point 4, and draw a line 5, 6, passing through
point 4 and extending 12 inches on either side of line FB; then with
line 5, 6, as a side, describe a parallelogram 24 inches by 6 inches.


RULE 9. Within the angle F, describe a square the sides of which shall
be 12 inches, two of its sides lying upon the lines FG and FH, and
within the angles G and H describe squares the side of which shall be 15
inches, the two outer sides of said square lying upon the lines FG and
GI and FH and HI, and at the angle E describe a square whose side shall
be 15 inches and so described that its sides shall be parallel with GI
and IH and its centre immediately over the angular point E.


RULE 10. On either side of the line AFB describe two parallelograms 6
feet long and 4 feet wide (marked 8 and 9), their length being parallel
with the line AFB, their distance apart being 6 inches, added to each
end of the length of the diagonal of the square within the angle F, and
the centre of their length being upon said diagonal.

RULE 11. The Home Base at F and the Pitcher's Plate at 4 must be of
whitened rubber and so fixed in the ground as to be even with the

RULE 12. The First Base at G, the Second Base at E, and the Third Base
at H, must be of white canvas bags, filled with soft material, and
securely fastened in their positions described in Rule 9.

RULE 13. The lines described in Rules 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 must be
marked with lime, chalk, or other suitable material, so as to be
distinctly seen by the Umpire.


RULE 14. The Ball.[A] [Footnote A: The Spalding League Ball has been
adopted by the National League for the past sixteen years, and is used
in all League contests.

For junior clubs (clubs composed of boys under 16 years of age) we
recommend them to use the Spalding Boys' League Ball, and that games
played by junior clubs with this ball will count as legal games the same
as if played with the Official League Ball.]

SECTION 1. Must not weigh less than five nor more than five and
one-quarter ounces avoirdupois, and measure not less than nine nor more
than nine and one-quarter inches in circumference. The Spalding League
Ball, or the Reach American Association Ball, must be used in all games
played under these rules.

SECTION. 2. For each championship game two balls shall be furnished by
the Home Club to the Umpire for use. When the ball in play is batted to
foul ground, out of sight of the Umpire, the other ball shall be
immediately brought into play. As often as one of the two in use shall
be lost a new one must be substituted, so that the Umpire shall at all
times after the game begins have two balls for use. The moment the
Umpire delivers an alternate ball to the pitcher it comes into play, and
shall not be exchanged until it, in turn, passes out of sight to foul

SECTION. 3. In all games the ball or balls played with shall be
furnished by the Home Club, and the last ball in play becomes the
property of the winning club. Each ball to be used in championship games
shall be examined, measured and weighed by the Secretary of the
Association, inclosed in a paper box and sealed with the seal of the
Secretary, which seal shall not be broken except by the Umpire in the
presence of the Captains of the two contesting nines after play has been

SECTION. 4. Should the ball become out of shape, or cut or ripped so as
to expose the interior, or in any way so injured as to be, in the
opinion of the Umpire, unfit for fair use, he shall, upon appeal by
either Captain, at once put the alternate ball into play and call for a
new one.


RULE 15. The Bat.

Must be made entirely of hard wood, except that the handle may be wound
with twine, or a granulated substance applied, not to exceed eighteen
inches from the end.

It must be round, not exceed two and three-quarter inches in diameter in
the thickest part, and must not exceed forty-two inches in length.


RULE 16. The players of each club in a game shall be nine in number, one
of whom shall act as Captain, and in no case shall less than nine men be
allowed to play on each side.

RULE 17. The players' positions shall be such as may be assigned them by
their Captain, except that the pitcher must take the position as defined
in Rules 8 and 29.

RULE 18. Players in uniform shall not be permitted to occupy seats among
the spectators.

RULE 19. SECTION 1. Every club shall adopt uniforms for its players, but
no player shall attach anything to the sole or heel of his shoes other
than the ordinary base ball shoe plate.

SECTION. 2. The catcher and first baseman are permitted to wear a glove
or mitt of any size, shape or weight. All other players are restricted
to the use of a glove or mitt weighing not over ten ounces, and
measuring in circumference around the palm of the hand not over fourteen


RULE 20. The Players' Benches must be furnished by the Home Club, and
placed upon a portion of the ground outside of, and not nearer than
twenty-five feet to, the players' lines. One such bench must be for the
exclusive use of the visiting club, and one for the exclusive use of the
home club, and the players of the competing teams shall be required to
occupy their respective benches while not engaged in active play.


RULE 21. SECTION 1. Every Championship game must be commenced not later
than two hours before sunset.

SECTION. 2. A Game shall consist of nine innings to each contesting
nine, except that

(a) If the side first at bat scores less runs in nine innings than the
other side has scored in eight innings, the game shall then terminate.

(b) If the side last at bat in the ninth innings scores the winning run
before the third man is out, the game shall terminate.


RULE 22. If the score be a tie at the end of nine innings, play shall be
continued until one side has scored more runs than the other in an equal
number of innings, provided that if the side last at bat scores the
winning run before the third man is out the game shall terminate. A DRAWN

RULE 23. A Drawn Game shall be declared by the Umpire when he terminates
a game on account of darkness or rain, after five equal innings have
been played, if the score at the time is equal on the last even innings
played; but (exception) if the side that went second to bat is then at
the bat, and has scored the same number of runs as the other side, the
Umpire shall declare the game drawn without regard to the score of the
last equal innings.


RULE 24. If the Umpire calls "Game" on account of darkness or rain at
any time after five innings have been completed, the score shall be that
of the last equal innings played, unless the side second at bat shall
have scored one or more runs than the side first at bat, in which case
the score of the game shall be the total number of runs made.


RULE 25. A forfeited game shall be declared by the Umpire in favor of
the club not in fault, at the request of such club, in the following

SECTION 1. If the nine of a club fail to appear upon a field, or being
upon the field, fail to begin the game within five minutes after the
Umpire has called "Play," at the hour appointed for the beginning of the
game, unless such delay in appearing or in commencing the game be

SECTION. 2. If, after the game has begun, one side refuses or fails to
continue playing, unless such game has been suspended or terminated by
the Umpire.

SECTION. 3. If, after play has been suspended by the Umpire, one side
fails to resume playing within one minute after the Umpire has called

SECTION. 4. If a team resorts to dilatory practice to delay the game.

SECTION. 5. If, in the opinion of the Umpire, any one of these rules is
willfully violated.

SECTION. 6. If, after ordering the removal of a player as authorized by
Rule 59, Sec. 5, said order is not obeyed within one minute.

SECTION. 7. In case the Umpire declares a game forfeited, he shall
transmit a written notice thereof to the President of the Association
within twenty-four hours thereafter.


RULE 26. "No Game" shall be declared by the Umpire if he shall terminate
play on account of rain or darkness, before five innings on each side
are completed, except in a case when the game is called, and the club
second at bat shall have more runs at the end of its fourth innings than
the club first at bat has made in its five innings, then the Umpire
shall award the game to the club having made the greatest number of
runs, and it shall be a game and be so counted in the Championship


RULE 27. SECTION 1. In every championship game each team shall be
required to have present on the field, in uniform, one or more
substitute players.

SECTION. 2. Any such player may be substituted at any time by either
club, but no player thereby retired shall thereafter participate in the

SECTION. 3. The Base Runner shall not have a substitute run for him
except by consent of the Captains of the contesting teams.


RULE 28. The choice of innings shall be given to the Captain of the Home
Club, who shall also be the sole judge of the fitness of the ground for
beginning a game after rain.


RULE 29. The Pitcher shall take his position facing the Batsman
with both feet square on the ground, and in front of the Pitcher's
plate, but in the act of delivering the ball one foot must be in contact
with the pitcher's plate, defined in Rule 8. He shall not raise either
foot, unless in the act of delivering the ball, nor make more than one
step in such delivery. He shall hold the ball, before the delivery,
fairly in front of his body, and in sight of the Umpire. When the
Pitcher feigns to throw the ball to a base he must resume the above
position and pause momentarily before delivering the ball to the bat.


RULE 30. A Fair Ball is a ball delivered by the Pitcher while standing
in his position, and facing the Batsman, the ball so delivered to pass
over the Home Base, not lower than the Batsman's knee, nor higher than
his shoulder.

RULE 31. An Unfair Ball is a ball delivered by the Pitcher, as in Rule
30, except that the ball does not pass over the Home Base, or does pass
over the Home Base above the Batsman's shoulder or below the knee.


RULE 32. A Balk shall be:

SECTION 1. Any motion made by the Pitcher to deliver the ball to the bat
without delivering it.

SECTION. 2. The holding of the ball by the Pitcher so long as to delay
the game unnecessarily.

SECTION. 3. Any motion in delivering the ball to the bat by the Pitcher
while not in the position defined in Rule 29.


RULE 33. A Dead Ball is a ball delivered to the bat by the Pitcher that
touches any part of the Batsman's person or clothing while standing in
his position without being struck at; or any part of the Umpire's person
or clothing, while on foul ground, without first passing the Catcher.

RULE 34. In case of a Foul Strike, Foul Hit ball not legally caught out,
Dead Ball, or Base Runner put out for being struck by a fair hit ball,
the ball shall not be considered in play until it is held by the Pitcher
standing in his position, and the Umpire shall have called play.


RULE 35. SECTION 1. A Block is a batted or thrown ball that is touched,
stopped or handled by any person not engaged in the game.

SECTION. 2. Whenever a Block occurs the Umpire shall declare it, and
Base Runners may run the bases without being put out until the ball has
been returned to and held by the pitcher standing in his position.

SECTION. 3. In the case of a Block, if the person not engaged in the
game should retain possession of the ball, or throw or kick it beyond
the reach of the Fielders, the Umpire should call "Time," and require
each Base Runner to stop at the last base touched by him until the ball
be returned to the pitcher standing in his position, and the Umpire
shall have called play.


RULE 36. The Batsmen must take their positions within the Batsmen's
Lines, as defined in Rule 10, in the order in which they are named in
the batting order, which batting order must be submitted by the Captains
of the opposing teams to the Umpire before the game, and this batting
order must be followed except in the case of a substitute player, in
which case the substitute must take the place of the original player in
the batting order. After the first inning the first striker in each
inning shall be the batsman whose name follows that of the last man who
has completed his turn--time at bat--in the preceding inning.

RULE 37. SECTION 1. When their side goes to the bat the players must
immediately return to the players' bench, as defined in Rule 20, and
remain there until the side is put out, except when batsmen or base
runners; provided, that the Captain and one assistant only may occupy
the space between the Players' Lines and the Captain's Lines, to coach
base runners.

SECTION. 2. No player of the side "at bat," except when batsman, shall
occupy any portion of the space within the Catcher's Lines, as defined
in Rule 3. The triangular space behind the Home Base is reserved for the
exclusive use of Umpire, Catcher and Batsman, and the Umpire must
prohibit any player of the side "at bat" from crossing the same at any
time while the ball is in the hands of, or passing between the Pitcher
and Catcher, while standing in their positions.

SECTION. 3. The players of the side "at bat" must occupy the portion of
the field allotted them, but must speedily vacate any portion thereof
that may be in the way of the ball, or any Fielder attempting to catch
or field it.


RULE 38. A Fair Hit is a ball batted by the Batsman, standing in his
position, that first touches any part of the person of a player or
umpire or falls within the foul lines, that (whether it first touches
Foul or Fair Ground) bounds or rolls within the Foul Lines, between Home
and First, or Home and Third Bases, without interference by a player.

RULE 39. A Foul Hit is a ball batted by the Batsman, standing in his
position, that first touches the ground, any part of the person of a
player, or any object behind either of the Foul Lines, or that strikes
the person of such Batsman, while standing in his position, or batted by
the Batsman, standing in his position, that (whether it first touches
Foul or Fair Ground) bounds or rolls outside the Foul Lines, between
Home and First or Home and Third Bases, without interference by a
player: Provided, that a Foul Hit ball not rising above the Batsman's
head, and caught by the Catcher playing within ten feet of the Home
Base, shall be termed a Foul Tip.

RULE 40. A bunt hit is a deliberate attempt on the part of the Batsman
to hit a ball slowly within the infield so that it cannot be fielded by
any infielder in time to retire the batsman.


RULE 41. When a batted ball passes outside the grounds, the Umpire shall
decide it Fair should it disappear within, or Foul should it disappear
outside of, the range of the Foul Lines, and Rules 38 and 39 are to be
construed accordingly.

RULE 42. A Fair batted ball that goes over the fence shall entitle the
batsman to a home run, except that should it go over the fence at a less
distance than two hundred and thirty-five feet from the Home Base, when
he shall be entitled to two bases only, and a distinctive line shall be
marked on the fence at this point.


RULE 43. A strike is:

SECTION 1. A ball struck at by the Batsman without its touching his bat;

SECTION. 2. A Fair Ball legally delivered by the Pitcher, but not struck
at by the Batsman.

SECTION. 3. Any obvious attempt to make a Foul Hit.

SECTION. 4. A Foul Hit, other than a Foul Tip, made by the Batsman while
attempting a bunt hit, as defined in Rule 40, that falls or rolls upon
foul ground between Home Base and First Base or Home Base and Third

SECTION. 5. A ball struck at, if the ball touches any part of the
Batsman's person.

SECTION. 6. A ball tipped by the Batsman and caught by the catcher
within the 10-foot lines.

RULE 44. A Foul Strike is a ball batted by the Batsman when any part of
his person is upon ground outside the lines of the Batsman's position.


RULE 45. The Batsman is out:

SECTION 1. If he fails to take his position at the bat in his order of
batting, unless the error be discovered and the proper Batsman takes his
position before a time "at bat" recorded; and in such case the balls and
strikes called must be counted in the time "at bat" of the proper
Batsman, and only the proper Batsman shall be declared out: Provided,
this rule shall not take effect unless the out is declared before the
ball is delivered to the succeeding Batsman, and no runs shall be scored
or bases run, and further, no outs shall be counted other than that of
the proper Batsman.

SECTION. 2. If he fails to take his position within one minute after the
Umpire has called for the Batsman.

SECTION. 3. If he makes a Foul Hit other than a Foul Tip, as defined in
Rule 39, and the ball be momentarily held by a Fielder before touching
the ground, provided it be not caught in a Fielder's hat or cap, or
touch some object other than a Fielder, before being caught.

SECTION. 4. If he makes a Foul Strike.

SECTION. 5. If he attempts to hinder the Catcher from fielding or
throwing the ball by stepping outside the lines of his position, or
otherwise obstructing or interfering with the player.

SECTION. 6. If, while the First Base be occupied by a base runner, three
strikes be called on him by the Umpire, except when two men are already

SECTION. 7. If, after two strikes have been called, the Batsman
obviously attempts to make a foul hit, as in Rule 43, Section 3.

SECTION. 8. If, while attempting a third strike, the ball touches any
part of the Batsman's person, in which case base runners occupying bases
shall return, as prescribed in Rule 49, Section 5.

SECTION. 9. If he hits a fly ball that can be handled by an infielder
while first and second bases are occupied, or first, second and third,
with only one out.

SECTION. 10. If the third strike is called in accordance with Section 4,
Rule 43, in such case the Umpire shall, as soon as the ball is hit,
declare infield or outfield hit.



RULE 46. The Batsman becomes a Base Runner:

SECTION 1. Instantly after he makes a Fair Hit.

SECTION. 2. Instantly after four balls have been called by the Umpire.

SECTION. 3. Instantly after three strikes have been decided by the

SECTION. 4. If, while he be a Batsman, without making any attempt to
strike, his person--excepting hands or forearm, which makes it a dead
ball--or clothing be hit by a ball from the Pitcher; unless, in the
opinion of the Umpire, he intentionally permits himself to be so hit.

SECTION. 5. Instantly after an illegal delivery of a ball by the


RULE 47. The Base Runner must touch each base in regular order, viz.,
First, Second, Third and Home Bases, and when obliged to return (except
on a foul hit) must retouch the base or bases in reverse order. He shall
only be considered as holding a base after touching it, and shall then
be entitled to hold such base until he has legally touched the next base
in order, or has been legally forced to vacate it for a succeeding Base


RULE 48. The Base Runner shall be entitled, without being put out, to
take the base in the following cases:

SECTION 1. If, while he was Batsman, the Umpire called four balls.

SECTION. 2. If the Umpire awards a succeeding batsman a base on four
balls, or for being hit with a pitched ball, or in case of an illegal
delivery--as in Rule 46, Section 5--and the Base Runner is thereby
forced to vacate the base held by him.

SECTION. 3. If the Umpire calls a "balk." SECTION. 4. If a ball,
delivered by the Pitcher, pass the Catcher and touch the Umpire, or any
fence or building within ninety feet of the Home Base.

SECTION. 5. If, upon a fair hit, the ball strikes the person or clothing
of the Umpire on fair ground.

SECTION. 6. If he be prevented from making a base by the obstruction of
an adversary.

SECTION. 7. If the Fielder stop or catch a batted ball with his hat or
any part of his dress.


RULE 49. The Base Runner shall return to his base, and shall be entitled
to so return without being put out:

SECTION 1. If the Umpire declares a Foul Tip (as defined in Rule 39), or
any other Foul Hit not legally caught by a fielder.

SECTION. 2. If the Umpire declares a Foul Strike.

SECTION. 3. If the Umpire declares a Dead Ball, unless it be also the
fourth Unfair Ball and he be thereby forced to take the next base, as
provided in Rule 48, Section 2.

SECTION. 4. If the person or clothing of the Umpire interferes with the
Catcher, or he is struck by a ball thrown by the Catcher to intercept a
Base Runner.

SECTION. 5. The Base Runner shall return to his base, if, while
attempting a strike, the ball touches any part of the Batsman's person.


RULE 50. The Base Runner is out:

SECTION 1. If, after three strikes have been declared against him while
Batsman, and the Catcher fail to catch the third strike ball, he plainly
attempts to hinder the Catcher from fielding the ball.

SECTION. 2. If, having made a Fair Hit while Batsman, such fair hit ball
be momentarily held by a Fielder, before touching the ground, or any
object other than a Fielder: Provided, it be not, caught in a
Fielder's hat or cap.

SECTION. 3. If, when the Umpire has declared three strikes on him, while
Batsman, the third strike ball be momentarily held by a Fielder before
touching the ground: Provided, it be not caught in a Fielder's hat or
cap, or touch some object other than a Fielder, before being caught.

SECTION. 4. If, after Three Strikes or a Fair Hit, he be touched with
the ball in the hand of a Fielder before he shall have touched First

SECTION. 5. If, after Three Strikes or a Fair Hit, the ball be securely
held by a Fielder, while touching First Base with any part of his
person, before such Base Runner touches First Base.

SECTION. 6. If, in running the last half of the distance from Home Base
to First Base, while the ball is being fielded to First Base, he runs
outside the three-foot lines, as defined in Rule 7, unless to avoid a
Fielder attempting to field a Batted Ball.

SECTION. 7. If, in running from First to Second Base, from Second to
Third Base, or from Third to Home Base, he runs more than three feet
from a direct line between such bases, to avoid being touched by the
ball in the hands of a Fielder; but in case a Fielder be occupying the
Base Runner's proper path, in attempting to field a batted ball, then
the Base Runner shall run out of the path, and behind said Fielder, and
shall not be declared out for so doing.

SECTION. 8. If he fails to avoid a Fielder attempting to field a batted
ball, in the manner described in Sections 6 and 7 of this Rule; or if he
in any way obstructs a Fielder attempting to field a batted ball, or
intentionally interferes with a thrown ball: Provided, that if two or
more Fielders attempt to field a batted ball, and the Base Runner comes
in contact with one or more of them, the Umpire shall determine which
Fielder is entitled to the benefit of this rule, and shall not decide
the Base Runner out for coming in contact with any other fielder.

SECTION. 9. If, at any time while the ball is in play, he be touched by
the ball in the hands of a Fielder, unless some part of his person is
touching a base he is entitled to occupy: Provided, the ball be held
by the Fielder after touching him; but (exception as to First Base), in
running to First Base he may overrun said base, without being put out
for being off said base, after first touching it, provided he returns at
once and retouches the base, after which he may be put out as at any
other base. If, in overrunning First Base, he also attempts to run to
Second Base, or, after passing the base he turns to his left from the
foul line, he shall forfeit such exemption from being put out.

SECTION. 10. If, when a Fair or Foul Hit ball (other than a foul tip as
referred to in Rule 39) is legally caught by a Fielder, such ball is
legally held by a Fielder on the base occupied by the Base Runner when
such ball was struck (or the Base Runner be touches with the ball in the
hands of a Fielder), before he retouches said base after such Fair or
Foul Hit ball was so caught: Provided, that the Base Runner shall not
be out in such case, if, after the ball was legally caught as above, it
be delivered to the bat by the Pitcher before the Fielder holds it on
said base, or touches the Base Runner with it; but if the Base Runner in
attempting to reach a base, detaches it before being touched or forced
out, he shall be declared safe.

SECTION. 11. If, when a Batsman becomes a Base Runner, the First Base,
or the First and Second Bases, or the First, Second and Third Bases, be
occupied, any Base Runner so occupying a base shall cease to be entitled
to hold it, until any following Base Runner is put out, and may be put
out at the next base or by being touched by the ball in the hands of a
Fielder in the same manner as in running to First Base, at any time
before any following Base Runner is put out.

SECTION. 12. If a Fair Hit ball strike him before touching the
Fielder, and in such case no base shall be run unless forced by the
Batsman becoming a base runner, and no run shall be scored; or any other
Base Runner put out.

SECTION. 13. If, when running to a base or forced to return to a base,
he fail to touch the intervening base or bases, if any, in the order
prescribed in Rule 47, he may be put out at the base he fails to touch,
or being touched by the ball in the hands of a Fielder, in the same
manner as in running to First Base; Provided, that the Base Runner
shall not be out in such case if the ball be delivered to the bat by the
Pitcher before the Fielder holds it on said base or touches the Base
Runner with it.

SECTION. 14. If, when the Umpire calls "Play," after any suspension of a
game, he fails to return to and touch the base he occupied when "Time"
was called before touching the next base: Provided, the Base Runner
shall not be out in such case if the ball be delivered to the bat by the
Pitcher before the Fielder holds it on said base or touches the Base
Runner with it.


RULE 51. The Umpire shall declare the Batsman or Base Runner out,
without waiting for an appeal for such decision, in all cases where such
player is put out in accordance with these rules, except as provided in
Rule 50, Sections 10 and 14.


RULE 52. The coachers shall be restricted to coaching the Base Runner
only, and shall not be allowed to address any remarks except to the Base
Runner, and then only in words of necessary direction; and shall not use
language which will in any manner refer to or reflect upon a player of
the opposing club, the Umpire or the spectators, and not more than two
coachers, who may be one player participating in the game and, any other
player under contract to it, in the uniform of either club, shall be
allowed at any one time. To enforce the above, the Captain of the
opposite side may call the attention of the Umpire to the offence, and
upon a repetition of the same, the offending player shall be debarred
from further participation in the game and shall leave the playing field


RULE 53. One run shall be scored every time a Base Runner, after having
legally touched the first three bases, shall touch the Home Base before
three men are put out by (exception). If the third man is forced out, or
is put out before reaching First Base, a run shall not be scored.


RULE 54. The Umpire shall not be changed during the progress of a game,
except for reason of illness or injury.


RULE 55. SECTION 1. The Umpire is master of the Field from the
commencement to the termination of the game, and is entitled to the
respect of the spectators, and any person offering any insult or
indignity to him must be promptly ejected from the grounds.

SECTION. 2. He must be invariably addressed by the players as
Mr. Umpire; and he must compel the players to observe the provisions of
all the Playing Rules, and he is hereby invested with authority to order
any player to do or omit to do any act as he may deem necessary, to give
force and effect to any and all such provisions.


RULE 56. The Umpire's duties shall be as follows:

SECTION 1. The Umpire is the sole and absolute judge of play. In no
instance shall any person, except the Captain of the competing teams, be
allowed to address him or question his decisions, and they can only
question him on an interpretation of the Rules. No Manager or any other
officer of either club shall be permitted to go on the field or address
the Umpire, under a penalty of a forfeiture of a game.

SECTION. 2. Before the commencement of a Game, the Umpire shall see that
the rules governing all the materials of the Game are strictly
observed. He shall ask the Captain of the Home Club whether there are
any special ground rules to be enforced, and if there are, he shall see
that they are duly enforced, provided they do not conflict with any of
these rules.

SECTION. 3. The Umpire must keep the contesting nines playing constantly
from the commencement of the game to its termination, allowing such
delays only as are rendered unavoidable by accident, injury or rain. He
must, until the completion of the game, require the players of each side
to promptly take their positions in the field as soon as the third man
is put out, and must require the first striker of the opposite side to
be in his position at the bat as soon as the fielders are in their

SECTION. 4. The Umpire shall count and call every "Unfair Ball"
delivered by the Pitcher, and every "Dead Ball," if also an unfair ball,
as a "Ball," and he shall count and call every "Strike." Neither a
"Ball" nor a "Strike" shall be counted or called until the ball has
passed the Home Base. He shall also declare every "Dead Ball," "Block,"
"Foul Hit," "Foul Strike," and "Balk," "Infield" or "Outfield Hit," as
prescribed in Rule 45, Section 9.


RULE 57. The Umpire must call "Play" promptly at the hour designated by
the Home Club, and on the call of "Play" the game must immediately
begin. When he calls "Time" play shall be suspended until he calls
"Play" again, and during the interim no player shall be put out, base be
run or run be scored. The Umpire shall suspend play only for an accident
to himself or a player (but in case of accident to a Fielder "Time"
shall not be called until the ball be returned to and held by the
Pitcher, standing in his position), or in case rain falls so heavily
that the spectators are compelled, by the severity of the storm, to seek
shelter, in which case he shall note the time of suspension, and should
such rain continue to fall thirty minutes thereafter, he shall terminate
the game; or to enforce order in case of annoyance from spectators.

RULE 58. The Umpire is only allowed, by the Rules, to call "Time" in
case of an accident to himself or a player, a "Block" as referred to in
Rule 35, Section 3, or in case of rain, as defined by the rule.


RULE 59. The Umpire is empowered to inflict lines of not less than
$25.00, nor more than $100.00, for the first offence, on players during
the progress of a game, as follows:

SECTION 1. For vulgar, indecent or other improper conduct or language.

SECTION. 2. For the Captain or Coacher willfully failing to remain
within the legal bounds of his position, except upon an appeal by the
captain from the Umpire's decision upon a misinterpretation of the

SECTION. 3. For the disobedience by a player of any other of his orders,
or for any other violation of these rules.

SECTION. 4. Immediately upon notification by the Umpire that a fine has
been imposed upon any Manager, Captain or player, the Secretary shall
forthwith notify the person so fined, and also the club of which he is a
member, and in the event of the failure of the person so fined to pay to
the Secretary the amount of said fine within five days of notice, he
shall be debarred from participation in any championship game until such
fine is paid.

SECTION. 5. The Umpire may remove a player from the playing field for a
violation of Section 1 of this rule, in addition to a fine, but under no
circumstances shall he remove a player for a violation of Section 2 of
this Rule, unless upon a repetition of the offence prescribed therein.


RULE 66. No club shall allow open betting or pool-selling upon its
ground, nor in any building owned or occupied by it.

RULE 61. No person shall be allowed upon any part of the field during
the progress of the game in addition to the players in uniform, the
Manager on each side and the Umpire; except such officers of the law as
may be present in uniform, and such officials of the Home Club as may be
necessary to preserve the peace.

RULE 62. No Umpire, Manager, Captain or player shall address the
spectators during the progress of a game, except in case of necessary

RULE 63. Every Club shall furnish sufficient police force upon its own
grounds to preserve order, and in the event of a crowd entering the
field during the progress of a game, and interfering with the play in
any manner, the Visiting Club may refuse to play further until the field
be cleared. If the ground be not cleared within fifteen minutes
thereafter, the Visiting Club may claim, and shall be entitled to, the
game by a score of nine runs to none (no matter what number of innings
have been played).


RULE 64. "Play" is the order of the Umpire to begin the game, or to
resume play after its suspension.

RULE 65. "Time" is the order of the Umpire to suspend play. Such
suspension must not extend beyond the day of the game.

RULE 66. "Game" is the announcement by the Umpire that the game is

RULE 67. An "Inning" is the term at bat of the nine players representing
a Club in a game, and is completed when three of such players have been
put out, as provided in these rules.

RULE 68. A "Time at Bat" is the term at bat of a Batsman. It begins
when he takes his position, and continues until he is put out or becomes
a base runner; except when, because of being hit by a pitched ball, or
in case of an illegal delivery by the Pitcher, or in case of a sacrifice
hit purposely made to the infield which, not being a base hit, advances
a base runner without resulting in a put out, except to the Batsman, as
in Rule 45.

RULE 69. "Legal" or "Legally" signifies as required by these Rules.


RULE 70. In order to promote uniformity in scoring championship games
the following instructions, suggestions and definitions are made for the
benefit of scorers, and they are required to make all scores in
accordance therewith.


SECTION 1. The first item in the tabulated score, after the player's
name and position, shall be the number of times he has been at bat
during game. The time or times when the player has been sent to base by
being hit by a pitched ball, by the Pitcher's illegal delivery, or by a
base on balls, shall not be included in this column.

SECTION. 2. In the second column should be set down the runs made by
each player.

SECTION. 3. In the third column should be placed the first base hits
made by each player. A base hit should be scored in the following cases:

When the ball from the bat strikes the ground within the foul lines, and
out of reach of the Fielders.

When a hit ball is partially or wholly stopped by a Fielder in motion,
but such player cannot recover himself in time to handle the ball before
the striker reaches First Base.

When a hit ball is hit so sharply to an infielder that he cannot handle
it in time to put out the Batsman. In case of doubt over this class of
hits, score a base hit, and exempt the Fielder from the charge of an

When a ball is hit so slowly toward a Fielder that he cannot handle it
in time to put out the Batsman.

That in all cases where a Base Runner is retired by being hit by a
batted ball, the Batsman should be credited with a base hit.

When a batted ball hits the person or clothing of the Umpire, as defined
in Rule 48, Section 5.

SECTION. 4. In the fourth column shall be placed Sacrifice Hits, which
shall be credited to the Batsman, who, when no one is out, or when but
one man is out, advances a Runner a base by a bunt sacrifice hit, which
results in putting out the Batsman, or would so result if the ball were
handled without error.


SECTION. 5. The number of opponents put out by each player shall be set
down in the fifth column. Where a Batsman is given out by the Umpire for
a foul strike, or where the Batsman fails to bat in proper order, the
put out shall be scored to the Catcher.

SECTION. 6. The number of times the player assists shall be set down in
the sixth column. An assist should be given to each player who handles
the ball in assisting a run out or other play of the kind.

An assist should be given to a player who makes a play in time to put a
Runner out, even if the player who could complete the play fails,
through no fault of the player assisting.

And generally an assist should be given to each player who handles or
assists in any manner in handling the ball from the time it leaves the
bat until it reaches the player who makes the put out, or in case of a
thrown ball, to each player who throws or handles it cleanly, and in
such a way that a put out results, or would result if no error were made
by the receiver.


SECTION. 7. An error shall be given in the seventh column for each
misplay which allows the striker or base runner to make one or more
bases when perfect play would have insured his being put out, except
that "wild pitches," "base on balls," bases on the Batsman being struck
by a "pitched ball," or in case of illegal pitched balls, balks and
passed balls, shall not be included in said column. In scoring errors of
batted balls see Section 3 of this Rule.

SECTION. 8. Stolen Bases shall be scored as follows:

Any attempt to steal a base must go to the credit of the Base Runner,
whether the ball is thrown wild or muffed by the fielder, but any
manifest error is to be charged to the fielder making the same. If the
Base Runner advances another base he shall not be credited with a stolen
base, and the fielder allowing the advancement is also to be charged
with an error. If the Base Runner makes a start and a battery error is
made, the runner secures the credit of a stolen base, and the battery
error is scored against the player making it. Should a Base Runner
overrun a base and then be put out, he shall receive the credit for the
stolen base. If a Base Runner advances a base on a fly out, or gains two
bases on a single base hit, or an infield out, or attempted out, he
shall be credited with a stolen base, provided there is a possible
chance and a palpable attempt made to retire him.


SECTION. 9. An earned run shall be scored every time the player reaches
the home base unaided by errors before chances have been offered to
retire the side.


RULE 71. The Summary shall contain:

SECTION 1. The number of earned runs made by each side.

SECTION. 2. The number of two-base hits made by each player.

SECTION. 3. The number of three-base hits made by each player.

SECTION. 4. The number of home runs made by each player.

SECTION. 5. The number of bases stolen by each player.

SECTION. 6. The number of double and triple plays made by each side, and
the names of the players assisting in the same.

SECTION. 7. The number of men given bases on called balls by each

SECTION. 8. The number of men given bases from being hit by pitched

SECTION. 9. The number of men struck out.

SECTION. 10. The number of passed balls by each Catcher.

SECTION. 11. The number of wild pitches by each Pitcher.

SECTION. 12. The time of Game.

SECTION. 13. The name of the Umpire.


The Ground, 1
The Field, 2
Catcher's Lines, 3
Foul Lines, 4
Players' Lines, 5
The Captain's and Coachers' Lines, 6
Three-foot Line, 7
Pitcher's Plate, 8
The Bases, 9
Batsman's Lines, 10
The Home Base, 11
First, Second and Third Bases, 12
Lines must be Marked, 13
The Ball, 14
Weight and Size, (1) 14
Number Balls Furnished, (2) 14
Furnished by Home Club, (3) 14
Replaced if Injured, (4) 14
The Bat, 15
Material of (1) 15
Shape of (2) 15


Number of Players in Game, 16
Players' Positions, 17
Players not to Sit with Spectators, 18
Club Uniforms, (1) 19
Gloves, (2) 19
Players' Benches, 20


Time of Championship Game, (1) 21
Number of Innings, (2) 21
Termination of Game, (a) 21
The Winning Run, (b) 21
A Tie Game, 22
A Drawn Game, 23
A Called Game, 24
A Forfeited Game, 25
Failure of the Nine to Appear, (1) 25
Refusal of One Side to Play, (2) 25
Failure to Resume Playing, (3) 25
If a Team Resorts to Dilatory Practice, (4) 25
Wilful Violation, (5) 25
Disobeying Order to Remove Player, (6) 25
Written Notice to President, (7) 25
No Game, 26
Substitutes, 27

One or more substitute players, (1) 27
Extra Player, (2) 27
Base Runner, (3) 27
Choice of Innings--Condition of Grounds, 28
The Pitcher's Position, 29
Delivery of the Ball--Fair Ball, 30
Unfair Ball, 31
Balking, 32
Motion to Deceive, (1) 32
Delay by Holding, (2) 32
Pitcher Outside of Lines, (3) 32
A Dead Ball, 33
A Foul Strike, 34
Block Balls, 35
Stopped by Person not in Game, (1) 35
Ball Returned, (2) 35
Base Runner must Stop, (3) 35
The Batsman's Position--Order of Batting, 36
Where Players must Remain, (1) 37
Space Reserved for Umpire, (2) 37
Space Allotted Players "at Bat," (3) 37
Batting Rules--Fair Hit, 38
Foul Hit, 39
Bunt Hit, 40
Batted Ball Outside Grounds, 41
A Fair Batted Ball, 42
Strikes, 43
Ball Struck at by Batsman, (1) 43
Fair Ball Delivered by Pitcher, (2) 43
Attempt to Make Foul Hit, (3) 43
Foul Hit while Attempting a Bunt Hit, (4) 43
Ball Struck at after Touching Batsman's Person, (5) 43
Ball Tipped by Batsman, (6) 43
A Foul Strike, 44
The Batsman is Out, 45
Failing to Take Position at Bat in Order, (1) 45
Failure to Take Position within One Minute after
being called, (2) 45
If He Makes a Foul Hit, (3) 45
If He Makes a Foul Strike, (4) 45
Attempt to Hinder Catcher, (5) 45
Three Strikes Called by Umpire, (6) 45
Attempt to Make a Foul Hit After Two Strikes
have been Called, (7) 45
If Ball Hits Him While Making Third Strike, (8) 45
If He Hits a Fly Ball that can be Handled by
Infielder while First Base Occupied with Only
One Out, (9) 45
If Third Strike is Called, (10) 45

The Batsman Becomes a Base Runner, 46
After a Fair Hit, (1) 46
After Four Balls are Called, (2) 46
After Three Strikes are Declared, (3) 46
If Hit by Ball While at Bat, (4) 46
After Illegal Delivery of Ball, (5) 46
Bases to be Touched, 47
Entitled to Bases, 48
If Umpire Call Four Balls, (1) 48
If Umpire Award Succeeding Batsman Base, (2) 48
If Umpire Calls Balk, (3) 48
If Pitcher's Ball Passes Catcher, (4) 48
Ball Strikes Umpire, (5) 48
Prevented from Making Base, (6) 48
Fielder Stops Ball, (7) 48
Returning to Bases, 49
If Foul Tip, (1) 49
If Foul Strike, (2) 49
If Dead Ball, (3) 49

If Person of Umpire Interferes with Catcher, (4) 49
If the Ball Touches the Batsman's Person, (5) 49
Base Runner Out, 50
Attempt to Hinder Catcher from Fielding Ball, (1) 50
If Fielder Hold Fair Hit Ball, (2) 50
Third Strike Ball Held by Fielder, (3) 50
Touched with Ball After Three Strikes, (4) 50
Touching First Base, (5) 50
Running from Home Base to First Base, (6) 50
Running from First to Second Base, (7) 50
Failure to Avoid Fielder, (8) 50
Touched by Ball While in Play, (9) 50
Fair or Foul Hit Caught by Fielder, (10) 50
Batsman Becomes a Base Runner, (11) 50
Touched by Hit Ball Before Touching Fielder, (12) 50
Running to Base, (13) 50
Umpire Calls Play, (14) 50
When Batsman or Base Runner is Out, 51
Coaching Rules, 52
Scoring of Runs, 53


The Umpire 54
When Master of the Field, (1) 55
Must Compel Observance of Playing Rules, (2) 55
Special Duties, 56
Is Sole Judge of Play, (1) 56
Shall See Rules Observed before Commencing
Game, (2) 56

Must Keep Contesting Nines Playing, (3) 56
Must Count and Call Balls, (4) 56
Umpire Must Call Play, 57
Umpire Allowed to Call Time, 58
Umpire is Empowered to Inflict Fines, 59
For Indecent Language, (1) 59
Wilful Failure of Captain to Remain within
Bounds, (2) 59
Disobedience of a Player, (3) 59
Shall Notify Captain, (4) 59
Repetition of Offences, (5) 59


No Club Shall Allow Open Betting, 60
Who Shall be Allowed in the Field, 61
Audience Shall Not be Addressed, 62
Every Club shall Furnish Police Force, 63


Play, 64
Time, 65
Game, 66
An Inning, 67
A Time at Bat, 68
Legal, 69
Scoring, 70
Batting, (1) 70
Runs Made, (2) 70
Base Hits, (3) 70
Sacrifice Hits, (4) 70
Fielding, (5) 70
Assists, (6) 70
Errors, (7) 70
Stolen Bases, (8) 70
Earned Runs, (9) 70
The Summary, 71
Number of Earned Runs, (1) 71
Number of Two Base Hits, (2) 71
Number of Three Base Hits, (3) 71
Number of Home Runs, (4) 71
Number of Stolen Bases, (5) 71
Number of Double and Triple Plays, (6) 71
Bases on Called Balls, (7) 71
Bases From being Hit, (8) 71
Men Struck Out, (9) 71
Passed Balls, (10) 71
Wild Pitches, (11) 71
Time of Game, (12) 71
Name of Umpire, (13) 71

Next: Rules Appendix

Previous: The Eastern League Averages

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